vxrt20220331_10q.htm
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Table of Contents



 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

 

 QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022

 

OR

 

 

 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from                      to                     

 

Commission file number: 001-35285

 

  

Vaxart, Inc.

  

  

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

  

 

  

Delaware

  

59-1212264

  

  

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

  

(IRS Employer Identification No.)

  

 

  

170 Harbor Way, Suite 300South San Francisco, CA 94080

  

(650) 550-3500

  

  

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

  

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

  

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

  

Title of each class

 

Trading symbol

  

Name of each exchange on which registered 

  

Common stock, $0.0001 par value

 

VXRT

  

The Nasdaq Capital Market 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ☑   No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes ☑   No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☑

Accelerated filer ☐

Non-accelerated filer ☐ 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes    No ☑

 

The Registrant had 126,445,811 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value, outstanding as of May 6, 2022.

 



 

 

 

 

FORM 10-Q

FOR THE QUARTER ENDED March 31, 2022

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

   

Page

Part I

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

1
         
   

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

1
         
     

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021

1
         
     

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021

2
         
     

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021

3
         
     

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021

4
         
     

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

5
         
   

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

16
         
   

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

26
         
   

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

26
         
         

Part II

OTHER INFORMATION

27
         
   

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

27
         
   

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

27
         
   

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

27
         
   

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

27
         
   

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

27
         
   

Item 5.

Other Information

27
         
   

Item 6.

Exhibits

28
         

SIGNATURES

  29

 

 

 

PART I FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1.  Financial Statements

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

(Unaudited)

 

 

  

March 31, 2022

  

December 31, 2021

 

Assets

        

Current assets:

        

Cash and cash equivalents

 $123,404  $143,745 

Short-term investments

  24,254   22,742 

Accounts receivable

  81   71 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

  6,441   2,609 
         

Total current assets

  154,180   169,167 
         

Long-term investments

  9,349   16,210 

Property and equipment, net

  7,629   6,601 

Right-of-use assets, net

  12,870   13,168 

Intangible assets, net

  10,286   10,624 

Goodwill

  4,508   4,508 

Other long-term assets

  1,556   890 
         

Total assets

 $200,378  $221,168 
         

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

        

Current liabilities:

        

Accounts payable

 $4,017  $3,872 

Current portion of operating lease liability

  1,079   1,011 

Current portion of liability related to sale of future royalties

  836   836 

Other accrued liabilities

  5,103   5,064 
         

Total current liabilities

  11,035   10,783 
         

Operating lease liability, net of current portion

  11,837   11,997 

Liability related to sale of future royalties, net of current portion

  10,955   10,686 

Other long-term liabilities

  186   171 
         

Total liabilities

  34,013   33,637 
         

Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)

          
         

Stockholders’ equity:

        

Preferred stock: $0.0001 par value; 5,000,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021

      

Common stock: $0.0001 par value; 150,000,000 shares authorized; 125,840,811 and 125,594,393 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively

  13   13 

Additional paid-in capital

  411,113   406,943 

Accumulated deficit

  (244,452)  (219,351)

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

  (309)  (74)
         

Total stockholders’ equity

  166,365   187,531 
         

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 $200,378  $221,168 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)

(Unaudited)

 

 

  

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
  

2022

  

2021

 

Revenue:

        

Revenue from customer service contracts

 $  $13 

Non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties

  85   493 
         

Total revenue

  85   506 
         

Operating expenses:

        

Research and development

  18,203   10,073 

General and administrative

  6,658   5,944 
         

Total operating expenses

  24,861   16,017 
         

Operating loss

  (24,776)  (15,511)
         

Other income (expense):

        

Interest income

  35   9 

Non-cash interest expense related to sale of future royalties

  (340)  (466)

Foreign exchange loss, net

     (1)
         

Loss before income taxes

  (25,081)  (15,969)
         

Provision for income taxes

  20   38 
         

Net loss

 $(25,101) $(16,007)
         

Net loss per share - basic and diluted

 $(0.20) $(0.14)
         

Shares used to compute net loss per share - basic and diluted

  125,795,255   115,422,628 
         

Comprehensive loss:

        

Net loss

 $(25,101) $(16,007)

Unrealized loss on available-for-sale investments, net of tax

  (235)  (5)

Comprehensive loss

 $(25,336) $(16,012)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2022 and 2021

(In thousands, except share amounts)

(Unaudited)

 

 

                  

Accumulated

     
          

Additional

      

Other

  

Total

 
  

Common Stock

  

Paid-in

  

Accumulated

  

Comprehensive

  

Stockholders’

 
  

Shares

  

Amount

  

Capital

  

Deficit

  

Loss

  

Equity

 
                         

Three Months Ended March 31, 2022

                        
                         

Balances as of December 31, 2021

  125,594,393  $13  $406,943  $(219,351) $(74) $187,531 
                         

Issuance of common stock under September 2021 ATM, net of offering costs of $314

  216,000      992         992 
                         

Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options

  30,418      48         48 
                         

Stock-based compensation

        3,130         3,130 
                         

Unrealized losses on available-for-sale investments

              (235)  (235)
                         

Net loss

           (25,101)     (25,101)
                         

Balances as of March 31, 2022

  125,840,811  $13  $411,113  $(244,452) $(309) $166,365 

 

 

 

                  

Accumulated

     
          

Additional

      

Other

  

Total

 
  

Common Stock

  

Paid-in

  

Accumulated

  

Comprehensive

  

Stockholders

 
  

Shares

  

Amount

  

Capital

  

Deficit

  

Loss

  

Equity

 
                         

Three Months Ended March 31, 2021

                        
                         

Balances as of December 31, 2020

  110,271,093  $11  $272,274  $(148,881) $  $123,404 
                         

Issuance of common stock under October 2020 ATM, net of offering costs of $3,182

  6,654,367   1   65,711         65,712 
                         

Issuance of common stock upon exercise of common stock warrants

  830,722      1,649         1,649 
                         

Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options

  207,730      231         231 
                         

Stock-based compensation

        1,251         1,251 
                         

Unrealized losses on available-for-sale investments

              (5)  (5)
                         

Net loss

           (16,007)     (16,007)
                         

Balances as of March 31, 2021

  117,963,912  $12  $341,116  $(164,888) $(5) $176,235 

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(In thousands)

(Unaudited)

 

 

  

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
  

2022

  

2021

 
         

Cash flows from operating activities:

        

Net loss

 $(25,101) $(16,007)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

        

Depreciation and amortization

  1,131   996 

Accretion of premium (discount) on investments

  36    

Stock-based compensation

  3,130   1,251 

Non-cash interest expense related to sale of future royalties

  340   466 

Non-cash revenue related to sale of future royalties

  (71)  (334)

Change in operating assets and liabilities:

        

Accounts receivable

  (10)  (366)

Prepaid expenses and other assets

  (4,498)  (2,694)

Accounts payable

  113   2,281 

Other accrued liabilities

  (183)  (2,185)
         

Net cash used in operating activities

  (25,113)  (16,592)
         

Cash flows from investing activities:

        

Purchase of property and equipment

  (1,346)  (615)

Purchases of investments

  (8,522)  (19,944)

Proceeds from maturities of investments

  13,600    
         

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

  3,732   (20,559)
         

Cash flows from financing activities:

        

Net proceeds from issuance of common stock through ATM facilities

  992   65,712 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock upon exercise of common stock warrants

     1,649 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options

  48   231 
         

Net cash provided by financing activities

  1,040   67,592 
         

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

  (20,341)  30,441 
         

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of the period

  143,745   126,870 
         

Cash and cash equivalents at end of the period

 $123,404  $157,311 

 

                 

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash financing activity:

               

Operating lease liabilities arising from obtaining right-of-use assets

  $ 125     $  

Acquisition of property and equipment included in accounts payable and accrued expenses

  $ 505     $ 303  

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

NOTE 1.  Organization and Basis of Presentation

 

General 

 

Vaxart Biosciences, Inc. was originally incorporated in California in March 2004, under the name West Coast Biologicals, Inc. The Company changed its name to Vaxart, Inc. (“Private Vaxart”) in July 2007, and reincorporated in the state of Delaware. On February 13, 2018, Private Vaxart completed a business combination with Aviragen Therapeutics, Inc. (“Aviragen”), pursuant to which Aviragen merged with Private Vaxart, with Private Vaxart surviving as a wholly owned subsidiary of Aviragen (the “Merger”). Pursuant to the terms of the Merger, Aviragen changed its name to Vaxart, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries, the “Company” or “Vaxart”) and Private Vaxart changed its name to Vaxart Biosciences, Inc.

 

On October 13, 2020, the Company entered into the Open Market Sale Agreement, (the “October 2020 ATM”) pursuant to which it could offer and sell, from time to time through sales agents, shares of its common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $250 million. The Company incurred direct expenses of approximately $0.3 million in connection with filing a prospectus supplement, dated October 13, 2020, with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), and paid sales commissions of up to 4.5% of gross proceeds from the sale of shares. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had sold 692,651 shares for gross proceeds of $5.5 million which, after deducting sales commissions and expenses, resulted in net proceeds under the October 2020 ATM of $4.9 million in 2020.

 

In the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company sold an additional 6,654,367 shares under the October 2020 ATM for gross proceeds of $68.9 million which, after deducting sales commissions and expenses, resulted in net proceeds of $65.7 million. A total of 13,932,490 shares were issued and sold under the October 2020 ATM for gross proceeds of $133.4 million which, after deducting sales commissions and expenses, resulted in net proceeds of $127.1 million.

 

On September 13, 2021, the October 2020 ATM was terminated, and on September 15, 2021, the Company entered into a Controlled Equity Offering Sales Agreement (the “September 2021 ATM”), pursuant to which it may offer and sell, from time to time through sales agents, shares of its common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100 million. The Company filed a prospectus supplement with the SEC on September 16, 2021, and will pay sales commissions of up to 3.0% of gross proceeds from the sale of shares. As of December 31, 2021, no shares had been issued under the September 2021 ATM. In the three months ended  March 31, 2022, 216,000 shares were issued and sold under the September 2021 ATM for gross proceeds of $1.3 million, which, after deducting sales commissions and expenses incurred to date, resulted in net proceeds of $1.0 million.

 

The Company’s principal operations are based in South San Francisco, California, and it operates in one reportable segment, which is the discovery and development of oral recombinant protein vaccines, based on its proprietary oral vaccine platform.

 

 

NOTE 2.  Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

 

Basis of Presentation – The Company has prepared the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted pursuant to these rules and regulations. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements and footnotes related thereto for the year ended December 31, 2021, included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022 (the “Annual Report”). Unless noted below, there have been no material changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements included in the Annual Report. In the opinion of management, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position and the results of its operations and cash flows. The results of operations for such interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or any future periods.

 

Basis of Consolidation – The condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Vaxart, Inc. and its subsidiaries. All significant transactions and balances between Vaxart, Inc. and its subsidiaries have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Use of Estimates – The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results and outcomes could differ from these estimates and assumptions.

 

Concentration of Credit Risk – Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents and available-for-sale investments. The Company places its cash, cash equivalents and available-for-sale investments at financial institutions that management believes are of high credit quality. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of default by the financial institutions holding the cash and cash equivalents to the extent such amounts are in excess of the federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits since inception.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

The primary focus of the Company’s investment strategy is to preserve capital and meet liquidity requirements. The Company’s investment policy addresses the level of credit exposure by limiting the concentration in any one corporate issuer or sector and establishing a minimum allowable credit rating.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

The Company has reviewed all newly-issued accounting pronouncements that are not yet effective and concluded that they are either not applicable to its operations or their adoption is not expected to have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.

 

 

NOTE 3.  Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

Fair value accounting is applied for all financial assets and liabilities and nonfinancial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually). Financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities that approximate fair value due to their relatively short maturities.

 

Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on a recurring basis in the balance sheets are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with inputs used to measure their fair values. The accounting guidance for fair value provides a framework for measuring fair value and requires certain disclosures about how fair value is determined. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the reporting date. The accounting guidance also establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value based upon whether such inputs are observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions made by the reporting entity.

 

The three-level hierarchy for the inputs to valuation techniques is briefly summarized as follows:

 

Level 1 – Inputs are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date;

 

Level 2 – Inputs are observable, unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, unadjusted quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the related assets or liabilities; and

 

Level 3 – Unobservable inputs that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities that are supported by little or no market data.

 

The following table sets forth the fair value of the Company’s financial assets that are measured on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2022 and  December 31, 2021 (in thousands):

 

  

Level 1

  

Level 2

  

Level 3

  

Total

 

March 31, 2022

                

Recurring financial assets:

                

Money market funds

 $76,094  $  $  $76,094 

U.S. Treasury securities

     20,319      20,319 

Commercial paper

     6,882      6,882 

Corporate debt securities

     6,402      6,402 

Total

 $76,094  $33,603  $  $109,697 

 

  

Level 1

  

Level 2

  

Level 3

  

Total

 

December 31, 2021

                

Recurring financial assets:

                

Money market funds

 $70,978  $  $  $70,978 

U.S. Treasury securities

     24,997      24,997 

Commercial paper

     7,491      7,491 

Corporate debt securities

     6,464      6,464 

Total

 $70,978  $38,952  $  $109,930 

 

The Company held no recurring financial liabilities as of  March 31, 2022 or December 31, 2021, or in the three months ended March 31, 2022 or 2021.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

NOTE 4.  Balance Sheet Components

 

 

(a)

Cash, Cash Equivalents and Investments

 

Cash, cash equivalents and investments consisted of the following (in thousands):

 

  

Amortized

  

Gross Unrealized

  

Estimated

  

Cash and Cash

  

Short-Term

  

Long-Term

 
  

Cost

  

Gains

  

Losses

  

Fair Value

  

Equivalents

  

Investments

  

Investments

 

March 31, 2022

                            

Cash at banks

 $47,310  $  $  $47,310  $47,310  $  $ 

Money market funds

  76,094         76,094   76,094       

U.S. Treasury securities

  20,576      (257)  20,319      10,970   9,349 

Commercial paper

  6,882         6,882      6,882    

Corporate debt securities

  6,454      (52)  6,402      6,402    

Total

 $157,316  $  $(309) $157,007  $123,404  $24,254  $9,349 

 

 

  

Amortized

  

Gross Unrealized

  

Estimated

  

Cash and Cash

  

Short-Term

  

Long-Term

 
  

Cost

  

Gains

  

Losses

  

Fair Value

  

Equivalents

  

Investments

  

Investments

 

December 31, 2021

                            

Cash at banks

 $72,767  $  $  $72,767  $72,767  $  $ 

Money market funds

  70,978         70,978   70,978       

U.S. Treasury securities

  25,055      (58)  24,997      12,022   12,975 

Commercial paper

  7,491         7,491      7,491    

Corporate debt securities

  6,480      (16)  6,464      3,229   3,235 

Total

 $182,771  $  $(74) $182,697  $143,745  $22,742  $16,210 

 

 

(b)

Accounts Receivable 

 

Accounts receivable comprises royalties receivable of $81,000 and $71,000 as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. The Company has provided no allowance for uncollectible accounts as of  March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021.

 

 

(c)

Property and Equipment, Net

 

Property and equipment, net consists of the following (in thousands):

 

  

March 31, 2022

  

December 31, 2021

 
    

Laboratory equipment

 $5,537  $5,057 

Office and computer equipment

  526   481 

Leasehold improvements

  1,063   1,063 

Construction in progress

  2,178   1,305 

Total property and equipment

  9,304   7,906 

Less: accumulated depreciation

  (1,675)  (1,305)

Property and equipment, net

 $7,629  $6,601 

 

Depreciation expense was $370,000 and $75,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. There were no impairments of the Company’s property and equipment recorded in the three months ended March 31, 2022 or 2021.

 

 

(d)

Right-of-Use Assets, Net

 

Right-of-use assets, net comprises facilities of $12.9 million and $13.2 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

 

(e)

Intangible Assets, Net

 

Intangible assets comprise developed technology and intellectual property. Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization. Amortization is computed using the straight-line method over useful lives ranging from 1.3 to 11.75 years for developed technology and 20 years for intellectual property. As of March 31, 2022, developed technology and intellectual property had remaining lives of 7.6 and 5.75 years, respectively. Intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands):

 

  

March 31, 2022

  

December 31, 2021

 
    

Developed technology

 $10,600  $10,600 

Intellectual property

  80   80 

Total cost

  10,680   10,680 

Less: accumulated amortization

  (394)  (56)

Intangible assets, net

 $10,286  $10,624 

 

Total amortization expense for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, was $338,000 and $433,000, respectively. As of March 31, 2022, the estimated future amortization expense by year is as follows (in thousands):

 

Year Ending December 31,

 

Amount

 

2022 (nine months remaining)

 $1,012 

2023

  1,350 

2024

  1,350 

2025

  1,350 

2026

  1,350 

Thereafter

  3,874 

Total

 $10,286 

 

 

(f)

Goodwill

 

Goodwill, which represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of assets acquired, comprises $4.5 million as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. As of March 31, 2022, there have been no indicators of impairment.

 

 

(g)

Other Accrued Liabilities

 

Other accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):

 

  

March 31, 2022

  

December 31, 2021

 
         

Accrued compensation

 $1,907  $2,786 

Accrued clinical and manufacturing expenses

  848   986 

Accrued professional and consulting services

  1,175   556 

Other liabilities, current portion

  1,173   736 

Total

 $5,103  $5,064 

 

 

NOTE 5.  Revenue

 

Royalty Agreement

 

The Company generates royalty revenue from the sale of Inavir in Japan, pursuant to a collaboration and license agreement that Aviragen entered into with Daiichi Sankyo Company, Limited (“Daiichi Sankyo”) in 2009. In September 2010, laninamivir octanoate was approved for sale by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare for the treatment of influenza in adults and children, which Daiichi Sankyo markets as Inavir. Under the agreement, the Company currently receives a 4% royalty on net sales of Inavir in Japan. The last patent related to Inavir is set to expire in December 2029, at which time royalty revenue will cease. No royalty revenue was recognized in the  three months ended March 31,  2022 and  2021. The Company recognized non-cash royalty revenue related to the sale of future royalties (see Note 6) of $85,000 and $493,000 in the  three months ended March 31,  2022 and  2021, respectively. Both royalty revenue and the non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties are subject to a 5% withholding tax in Japan, for which $4,000 and $25,000 was included in income tax expense in the  three months ended March 31,  2022 and  2021, respectively.

The Company’s royalty revenue is seasonal, in line with the flu season, so the majority of the Company’s royalty revenue and non-cash royalty revenue related to the sale of future royalties are earned in the first and fourth fiscal quarters.

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

NOTE 6.  Liabilities Related to Sale of Future Royalties

 

In April 2016, Aviragen entered into a Royalty Interest Acquisition Agreement (the “RIAA”) with HealthCare Royalty Partners III, L.P. (“HCRP”). Under the RIAA, HCRP made a $20.0 million cash payment to Aviragen in consideration for acquiring certain royalty rights (“Royalty Rights”) related to the approved product Inavir in the Japanese market. The Royalty Rights were obtained pursuant to the collaboration and license agreements (the “License Agreement”) and a commercialization agreement that the Company entered into with Daiichi Sankyo. Per the terms of the RIAA, HCRP is entitled to the first $3.0 million plus 15% of the next $1.0 million in royalties earned in each year commencing on April 1, with any excess revenue being retained by the Company.

 

Under the relevant accounting guidance, due to a limit on the amount of royalties that HCRP can earn under the RIAA, this transaction is accounted for as a liability that is being amortized using the interest method over the life of the arrangement. The Company has no obligation to pay any amounts to HCRP other than to pass through to HCRP its share of royalties as they are received from Daiichi Sankyo. In order to record the amortization of the liability, the Company is required to estimate the total amount of future royalty payments to be received under the License Agreement and the payments that will be passed through to HCRP over the life of this agreement. Consequently, the Company imputes interest on the unamortized portion of the liability and records non-cash interest expense using an estimated effective interest rate. The royalties earned in each period that will be passed through to HCRP are recorded as non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties, with any excess not subject to pass-through being recorded as royalty revenue. When the pass-through royalties are paid to HCRP in the following quarter, the imputed liability related to sale of future royalties is commensurately reduced. The Company periodically assesses the expected royalty payments, and to the extent such payments are greater or less than the initial estimate, the Company adjusts the amortization of the liability and interest rate. As a result of this accounting, even though the Company does not retain HCRP’s share of the royalties, it will continue to record non-cash revenue related to those royalties until the amount of the associated liability, including the related interest, is fully amortized.

 

The following table shows the activity within the liability account during the three months ended March 31, 2022 (in thousands):

 

Total liability related to sale of future royalties, start of period

 $11,522 

Non-cash royalty revenue paid to HCRP

  (71)

Non-cash interest expense recognized

  340 

Total liability related to sale of future royalties, end of period

  11,791 

Current portion

  (836)

Long-term portion

 $10,955 

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

NOTE 7.  Leases

 

The Company has obtained the right of use for office and manufacturing facilities under six operating lease agreements with initial terms exceeding one year and has two operating lease agreements for facilities with initial terms of one year or less.

 

The Company obtained the right of use of real estate located in South San Francisco, California, in November 2020 under a lease that was scheduled to terminate on September 30, 2025, which has been extended until March 31, 2029, with no additional extension option. The Company also obtained the right of use of real estate located in South San Francisco, California, in June 2015 that was scheduled to terminate on April 30, 2020, with a five-year extension option that the Company exercised in July 2019, extending the lease until April 30, 2025, which has been further extended until March 31, 2029, with an option to extend for an additional eight years. In addition, the Company has the right of use of a facility located in South San Francisco, California, under a lease that, following a one-year extension, now terminates on July 31, 2022, with no extension option. Further, the Company has the right of use of a facility located in South San Francisco, California, under a lease that terminates on March 30, 2029, with a five-year renewal option. The Company also has the right of use of two facilities in Burlingame, California, under leases that terminate on  May 31, 2025, both of which have two 30-month extension options. The Company has also identified short-term embedded leases for the rental of facilities in South San Francisco, California and Lodi, Wisconsin.

 

As of March 31, 2022, the weighted average discount rate for operating leases with initial terms of more than one year was 9.27% and the weighted average remaining term of these leases was 6.67 years. Discount rates were determined using the Company’s marginal rate of borrowing at the time each lease commenced or was extended.

 

The following table summarizes the Company’s undiscounted cash payment obligations for its operating lease liabilities with initial terms of more than twelve months as of  March 31, 2022 (in thousands):

 

Year Ending December 31,

    

2022 (nine months remaining)

 $1,590 

2023

  2,168 

2024

  2,242 

2025

  2,316 

2026

  2,852 

Thereafter

  6,770 

Undiscounted total

  17,938 

Less: imputed interest

  (5,022)

Present value of future minimum payments

  12,916 

Current portion of operating lease liability

  (1,079)

Operating lease liability, net of current portion

 $11,837 

 

The Company presently has no finance leases and no future obligations under operating leases with initial terms of one year or less.

 

Certain operating lease agreements for facilities include non-lease costs, such as common area maintenance, which are recorded as variable lease costs. Operating lease expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, are summarized as follows (in thousands):

 

  

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
  

2022

  

2021

 

Lease cost

        

Operating lease cost

 $719  $662 

Short-term lease cost

  118   60 

Variable lease cost

  265   293 

Sublease income

     (36)

Total lease cost

 $1,102  $979 

 

Net cash outflows associated with operating leases totaled $889,000 and $934,000 in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

In addition, in September 2021 the Company executed a lease for a facility in South San Francisco, California, with an initial term expiring on March 31, 2029, with an option to extend for an additional eight years. The lease was rent free until April 1, 2022, with escalating rent payments over the remaining life of the lease, under which minimum rent payments total $14.9 million. The lease includes tenant improvement provisions which are expected to cost the Company approximately $7 million, of which $678,000 had been expended by March 31, 2022, recorded within other long-term assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheet. The Company has concluded that the leasehold improvements are lessor-owned and determined that the lease has not yet commenced for accounting purposes. The cost of leasehold improvements incurred prior to lease commencement will be included in the related right-of-use asset when the lease is deemed to commence, which is expected to occur in the three months ending September 30, 2022.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

NOTE 8.  Commitments and Contingencies

 

 

(a)

Purchase Commitments

 

As of March 31, 2022, the Company had approximately $20.7 million of non-cancelable purchase commitments, principally for contract manufacturing and clinical services and leasehold improvements which are expected to be paid within the next year. In addition, the Company has operating lease commitments as detailed in Note 7 and a further commitment for an operating lease with rental payments totaling $14.9 million payable by March 31, 2029, which has been executed but has not yet commenced, for which we expect to spend a net total of approximately $7 million on leasehold improvements, of which $678,000 has already been expended and $6.1 million is included within non-cancelable purchase commitments, which will be recorded as right-of-use assets when the lease commences.

 

 

(b)

Indemnifications

 

In the ordinary course of business, the Company enters into agreements that may include indemnification provisions. Pursuant to such agreements, the Company may indemnify, hold harmless and defend indemnified parties for losses suffered or incurred by the indemnified party. Some of the provisions will limit losses to those arising from third-party actions. In some cases, the indemnification will continue after the termination of the agreement. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these provisions is not determinable. The Company has also entered into indemnification agreements with certain officers and directors which provide, among other things, that the Company will indemnify and advance expenses incurred in connection with certain actions, suits or proceedings to such officer or director, under the circumstances and to the extent provided for therein, for expenses, damages, judgments, fines and settlements he or she may be required to pay in actions or proceedings which he or she is or may be made a party by reason of his or her position as a director, officer or other agent of the Company, and otherwise to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law and the Company’s Bylaws. The Company currently has directors’ and officers’ insurance.

 

 

(c)

Litigation

 

From time to time the Company may be involved in legal proceedings arising in connection with its business. Based on information currently available, the Company believes that the amount, or range, of reasonably possible losses in connection with any pending actions against it in excess of established reserves, in the aggregate, is not material to its consolidated financial condition or cash flows. However, any current or future dispute resolution or legal proceeding, regardless of the merits of any such proceeding, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources that are needed to run the Company successfully, and could have a material adverse impact on its business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

On August 4, 2020, a purported shareholder derivative complaint was filed in the Superior Court of California, San Mateo County, entitled Godfrey v. Latour, et al. An amended complaint was filed on September 4, 2020 and the case was re-named Ennis v. Latour, et al. A second amended complaint was filed on November 25, 2020. On March 15, 2021, the court sustained demurrers to the second amended complaint, without prejudice to file a further amended complaint. A third amended complaint was filed on June 11, 2021. The third amended complaint names certain current and former Vaxart directors as defendants, asserting claims against them for breach of fiduciary duty, unjust enrichment, and waste and seeking, among other things, an award of unspecified damages, certain equitable relief, and attorneys’ fees and costs. The complaint also asserts claims for breach of fiduciary duty and aiding and abetting breach of fiduciary duty against Armistice Capital, LLC (“Armistice”). The third amended complaint challenges certain stock options granted to certain of the Company’s officers and directors in June 2020; certain alleged statements and omissions made in the Company’s April 24, 2020, proxy statement; and certain amendments to two warrants held by Armistice, as disclosed on June 8, 2020. The third amended complaint purports to bring the lawsuit derivatively on behalf of and for the benefit of the Company and names the Company as a “nominal defendant” against which no damages are sought. On August 31, 2021, the Company and certain of its directors (the “Vaxart Defendants”), as well as all other defendants, filed demurrers to the third amended complaint. The demurrer filed by the Vaxart Defendants has not yet been decided.

 

On September 8, 2020, a purported shareholder derivative complaint was filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, entitled Galjour v. Floroiu, et al. On October 20, 2020, a purported shareholder derivative and class action complaint, entitled Jaquith v. Vaxart, Inc., was filed in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware. On November 12, 2020, the two actions were consolidated under the caption In re Vaxart, Inc. Stockholder Litigation and the complaint filed in the Jaquith action was deemed the operative pleading. The operative complaint names certain current and former Vaxart directors as defendants, asserting claims against them for breach of fiduciary duty and unjust enrichment and seeking, among other things, an award of unspecified damages, certain equitable relief, and attorneys’ fees and costs. The complaint also asserts claims for unjust enrichment and breach of fiduciary duty or alternatively aiding and abetting breach of fiduciary duty against Armistice. The complaint challenges certain stock options granted to certain of the Company’s officers and directors between March 24, 2020 and June 15, 2020; certain alleged statements and omissions made in the Company’s April 24, 2020, proxy statement; and certain amendments to two warrants held by Armistice, as disclosed on June 8, 2020. The complaint purports to bring all but one of the claims derivatively on behalf of and for the benefit of the Company. It also purports to bring one claim, for breach of fiduciary duty based on alleged statements and omissions in the Company’s April 24, 2020, proxy statement, directly on behalf of a class of Vaxart stockholders. The complaint names the Company as a “nominal defendant” against which no damages are sought. On January 4, 2021, all defendants filed motions to dismiss. In a decision dated November 30, 2021 and corrected on December 1, 2021, the court dismissed the claims relating to the warrant amendments. The motions to dismiss the remaining claims have not yet been decided.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

In August and September 2020, two substantially similar securities class actions were filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. The first action, titled Himmelberg v. Vaxart, Inc. et al. was filed on August 24, 2020. The second action, titled Hovhannisyan v. Vaxart, Inc. et al. was filed on September 1, 2020 (together, the “Putative Class Action”). By Order dated September 17, 2020, the two actions were deemed related. On December 9, 2020, the court appointed lead plaintiffs and lead plaintiffs’ counsel. On January 29, 2021, lead plaintiffs filed their consolidated amended complaint. On July 8, 2021, all defendants moved to dismiss the consolidated amended complaint. On May 14, 2021, the court granted lead plaintiffs’ request to amend the consolidated amended complaint and denied defendants’ motions to dismiss as moot. On June 10, 2021, lead plaintiffs filed an amended consolidated complaint. On August 9, 2021, lead plaintiffs filed a corrected amended consolidated complaint. The amended consolidated complaint names certain of Vaxart’s current and former executive officers and directors, as well as Armistice, as defendants. It claims three violations of federal civil securities laws; violation of Section 10(b) of the Exchange Act and SEC Rule 10b-5, as against the Company and all individual defendants; violation of Section 20(a) of the Exchange Act, as against Armistice and all individual defendants; and violation of Section 20A of the Exchange Act against Armistice. The amended consolidated complaint alleges that the defendants violated securities laws by misstating and/or omitting information regarding the Company’s development of a norovirus vaccine, the vaccine manufacturing capabilities of a business counterparty, and the Company’s involvement with Operation Warp Speed (“OWS”); and by engaging in a scheme to inflate Vaxart’s stock price. The first amended consolidated complaint seeks to be certified as a class action for similarly situated shareholders and seeks, among other things, an unspecified amount of damages and attorneys’ fees and costs. On July 8, 2021, all defendants moved to dismiss the first amended consolidated complaint. On December 22, 2021, the court granted in part and denied in part the motions to dismiss. The parties appeared at an initial case management conference on February 2, 2022, to set a schedule for the rest of the action. On February 8, 2022, the court entered a Case Management Plan, setting forth certain case deadlines.

 

On October 23, 2020, a complaint was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, entitled Roth v. Armistice Capital LLC, et al. The complaint names Armistice and certain Armistice-related parties as defendants, asserting a violation of Exchange Act Section 16(b) and seeking the disgorgement of short-swing profits. The complaint purports to bring the lawsuit on behalf of and for the benefit of the Company and names the Company as a “nominal defendant” for whose benefit damages are sought.

 

On January 8, 2021, a purported shareholder, Phillip Chan, commenced a pro se lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California titled Chan v. Vaxart, Inc. et al. (the “Opt-Out Action”). Because this complaint is nearly identical to an earlier version of a complaint filed in the Putative Class Action, the Opt-Out Action has been stayed pending resolution of the Putative Class Action.

 

On March 5, 2021, a purported shareholder, Kathleen Sanetel, served a demand letter on the Company’s board of directors demanding that it investigate and commence appropriate legal action against certain members of the board of directors, certain executive officers, and Armistice to remedy purportedly wrongful conduct. On or about June 2, 2021, another purported shareholder, Jerry Besa, served a substantially identical demand letter. The specific allegations and alleged wrongful conduct set forth in the demand letter are, in all material respects, substantially similar to the allegations and claims made in the amended consolidated complaint in the Putative Class Action. After receipt of the Sanetel demand letter, the Board appointed a committee of the Board (the “Demand Committee”) and delegated to the Demand Committee the authority to investigate the matters referenced in the demand letter and determine action(s), if any, to be taken by the Company in response to the demand. On February 10, 2022, a purported shareholder, Kevin Meehan, served a similar demand letter on the Company’s current board of directors, premised on the same allegations and claims made in the amended consolidated complaint in the Putative Class Action and demanding the Company take legal action against the defendants in the Putative Class Action. On April 29, 2022, purported shareholder Vijay Gururaj served a letter informing the Company that he was joining in the March 5, 2021, Sanetel demand letter. The Demand Committee is working towards completing its evaluation of the Sanetel/Guraraj, Besa and Meehan demand letters.

 

No amounts have been accrued because the Company’s management does not presently believe that any loss is probable and it is not possible to reasonably estimate the loss, or range of losses, if any, that may result from any of the ongoing litigation. The Company’s legal costs incurred in its defense against these claims are expensed as incurred.

 

 

NOTE 9.  Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

(a)

Preferred Stock

 

The Company is authorized to issue 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share. The Company’s board of directors may, without further action by the stockholders, fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of up to an aggregate of 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and authorize their issuance. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the Company’s common stock. The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change of control or other corporate action. No shares of preferred stock are currently outstanding, and the Company has no present plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

 

(b)

Common Stock

 

The Company is authorized to issue 150,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share. Except as otherwise required by law or as otherwise provided in any certificate of designation for any series of preferred stock, the holders of common stock possess all voting power for the election of the Company’s directors and all other matters requiring stockholder action. Holders of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on matters to be voted on by stockholders. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive such dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the Company’s board of directors in its discretion out of funds legally available therefor. In no event will any stock dividends or stock splits or combinations of stock be declared or made on common stock unless the shares of common stock at the time outstanding are treated equally and identically. As of March 31, 2022, no dividends had been declared by the board of directors.

 

In the event of the Company’s voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution, distribution of assets or winding-up, the holders of the common stock will be entitled to receive an equal amount per share of all of the Company’s assets of whatever kind available for distribution to stockholders, after the rights of the holders of the preferred stock have been satisfied. There are no sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock.

 

The Company had shares of common stock reserved for issuance as follows:

 

  

March 31, 2022

  

December 31, 2021

 
         

Options issued and outstanding

  13,253,647   10,216,106 

RSUs issued and outstanding

  245,625    

Available for future grants of equity awards

  2,269,093   5,582,742 

Common stock warrants

  232,434   232,434 

Total

  16,000,799   16,031,282 

 

 

(c)

Warrants

 

The following warrants were outstanding as of March 31, 2022, all of which contain standard anti-dilution protections in the event of subsequent rights offerings, stock splits, stock dividends or other extraordinary dividends, or other similar changes in the Company’s common stock or capital structure, and none of which have any participating rights for any losses:

 

Securities into which warrants are convertible

 

Warrants Outstanding

  

Exercise Price

 

Expiration Date

          

Common Stock

  5,000  $0.30 

September 2024

Common Stock

  44,148  $1.10 

April 2024

Common Stock

  26,515  $1.375 

April 2024

Common Stock

  29,150  $2.50 

March 2025

Common Stock

  100,532  $3.125 

February 2025

Common Stock

  16,175  $3.125 

March 2024

Common Stock

  10,914  $22.99 

December 2026

Total

  232,434      

 

In the event of a Fundamental Transaction (a transfer of ownership of the Company as defined in the warrant) within the Company’s control, the holders of the unexercised common stock warrants exercisable for $0.30, $1.10 and $2.50 and those exercisable for $3.125 expiring in February 2025 shall be entitled to receive cash consideration equal to a Black-Scholes valuation, as defined in the warrant. If such Fundamental Transaction is not within the Company’s control, the warrantholders would only be entitled to receive the same form of consideration (and in the same proportion) as the holders of the Company’s common stock, hence these warrants are classified as a component of permanent equity.

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

NOTE 10.  Equity Incentive Plans

 

On April 23, 2019, the Company’s stockholders approved the adoption of the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2019 Plan”), under which the Company is authorized to issue incentive stock options, nonqualified stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards and restricted stock units, other stock awards and performance awards that may be settled in cash, stock, or other property. The 2019 Plan is designed to secure and retain the services of employees, directors and consultants, provide incentives for the Company’s employees, directors and consultants to exert maximum efforts for the success of the Company and its affiliates, and provide a means by which employees, directors and consultants may be given an opportunity to benefit from increases in the value of the Company’s common stock. Following adoption of the 2019 Plan, all previous plans were frozen, and on forfeiture, cancellation and expiration, awards under those plans are not assumed by the 2019 Plan.

 

The aggregate number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance under the 2019 Plan was initially 1,600,000 shares, which was increased through an amendment to the 2019 Plan adopted by the Company’s stockholders (a “Plan Amendment”) on June 8, 2020, to 8,000,000, and by a Plan Amendment on June 16, 2021, to 16,900,000. Further amendments to the 2019 Plan to increase the share reserve would require stockholder approval. Awards that are forfeited or canceled generally become available for issuance again under the 2019 Plan. Awards have a maximum term of ten years from the grant date and may vest over varying periods, as specified by the Company’s board of directors for each grant.

 

In  March 2022, the Company granted 245,625 restricted stock unit (“RSU”) awards to employees which vest annually over four years, subject to each employee’s continued service relationship with the Company. The related compensation cost, which is based on the grant date fair value of the Company’s common stock multiplied by the number of RSUs granted, is recognized, net of estimated forfeitures, as an expense ratably over the service period.

 

A summary of stock option and RSU transactions in the three months ended March 31, 2022, is as follows:

 

          

Weighted

      

Weighted

 
  

Shares

  

Number of

  

Average

  

Number of

  

Average

 
  

Available

  

Options

  

Exercise

  

RSUs

  

Grant Date

 
  

For Grant

  

Outstanding

  

Price

  

Outstanding

  

Fair Value

 
                     

Balance at January 1, 2022

  5,582,742   10,216,106  $4.96     $ 

Granted

  (3,486,375)  3,240,750  $5.06   245,625  $5.09 

Exercised

     (30,418) $1.57     $ 

Forfeited

  172,726   (172,791) $7.04     $ 
                     

Balance at March 31, 2022

  2,269,093   13,253,647  $4.97   245,625  $5.09 

 

As of March 31, 2022, there were 13,253,647 options outstanding with a weighted average exercise price of $4.97, a weighted average remaining term of 8.75 years and an aggregate intrinsic value of $13.2 million. Of these options, 4,514,915 were vested, with a weighted average exercise price of $3.13, a weighted average remaining term of 7.55 years and an aggregate intrinsic value of $10.7 million. The Company received $48,000 for the 30,418 options exercised during the three months ended March 31, 2022, which had an intrinsic value of $101,000, and received $231,000 for the 207,730 options exercised during the three months ended March 31, 2021, which had an intrinsic value of $1.1 million.

 

The weighted average grant date fair value of options awarded in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, was $4.48 and $5.46, respectively. Their fair values were estimated using the following assumptions:

 

  

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
  

2022

  

2021

 
         

Risk-free interest rate

  1.62% - 2.55%   1.02% - 1.07% 

Expected term (in years)

  6.02 - 6.08   5.87 - 6.07 

Expected volatility

  125% - 126%   122% - 124% 

Dividend yield

  %  %

 

 

VAXART, INC.

 

Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

The Company measures the fair value of all stock-based awards on the grant date and records the fair value of these awards, net of estimated forfeitures, to compensation expense over the service period. Total stock-based compensation recognized for options and RSUs was as follows (in thousands):

 

  

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
  

2022

  

2021

 
         

Research and development

 $2,027  $579 

General and administrative

  1,103   672 

Total stock-based compensation

 $3,130  $1,251 

 

As of March 31, 2022, the unrecognized stock-based compensation cost related to outstanding unvested stock options and RSUs was $38.7 million, which the Company expects to recognize over an estimated weighted average period of 3.32 years.

 

 

NOTE 11.  Net Loss Per Share

 

The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted net loss per share (in thousands, except share and per share amounts):

 

  

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
  

2022

  

2021

 
         

Net loss

 $(25,101) $(16,007)
         

Shares used to compute net loss per share – basic and diluted

  125,795,255   115,422,628 
         

Net loss per share – basic and diluted

 $(0.20) $(0.14)

 

No adjustment has been made to the net loss in the three months ended March 31, 2022 or 2021, as the effect would be anti-dilutive due to the net loss.

 

The following potentially dilutive securities were excluded from the computation of diluted weighted average shares outstanding because they would have been antidilutive:

 

  

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
  

2022

  

2021

 
         

Options to purchase common stock

  10,903,711   6,834,510 
         

Restricted stock units

  10,917    
         

Warrants to purchase common stock

  232,434   622,942 
         

Total potentially dilutive securities excluded from denominator of the diluted earnings per share computation

  11,147,062   7,457,452 

 

 

NOTE 12.  Subsequent Events

 

Since March 31, 2022, the Company has issued 560,000 shares of common stock under the  September 2021 ATM (see Note 1) for net proceeds totaling $2.8 million.

 

Changes in the status of litigation since March 31, 2022, are included in “Note 8. Commitments and Contingencies—(c) Litigation”.

 

 

 

Item 2.  Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our audited consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022. This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “goal,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “project,” “predict,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements and reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, particularly in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A. The forward-looking statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are made only as of the date hereof. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the filing date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and we caution investors against unduly relying upon these statements. In all events, we undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, change in circumstances, future events or otherwise, and you are advised to consult any additional disclosures that we may make directly to you or through reports that we, in the future, may file with the SEC, including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K.

 

Company Overview and Background

 

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company primarily focused on the development of oral recombinant vaccines based on our Vector-Adjuvant-Antigen Standardized Technology (“VAAST”) proprietary oral vaccine platform. Our oral vaccines are designed to generate broad and durable immune responses that may protect against a wide range of infectious diseases and may be useful for the treatment of chronic viral infections and cancer. Our investigational vaccines are administered using a room temperature-stable tablet, rather than by injection.

 

We are developing prophylactic vaccine candidates that target a range of infectious diseases, including SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (“COVID-19”)), norovirus (a widespread cause of acute gastro-intestinal enteritis) and seasonal influenza. We have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial for our first SARS CoV-2 vaccine candidate, that commenced in October 2020; the study met its primary and secondary endpoints. A Phase 2 study with our second SARS CoV-2 vaccine candidate commenced dosing in October 2021 and is currently ongoing. Three Phase 1 human studies for our norovirus vaccine candidate have been completed, including a study with a bivalent norovirus vaccine which, as we disclosed in September 2019, met its primary and secondary endpoints. Additional Phase 1 studies with our norovirus vaccine are currently ongoing. Our monovalent H1 influenza vaccine protected participants against H1 influenza infection in a Phase 2 challenge study, as published in 2020 (Lancet ID). In addition, we are in early development of a prophylactic vaccine targeting respiratory syncytial virus (“RSV”) (a common cause of respiratory tract infection) and of our first therapeutic vaccine targeting cervical cancer and dysplasia caused by human papillomavirus (“HPV”).

 

Vaxart Biosciences, Inc. was originally incorporated in California in March 2004, under the name West Coast Biologicals, Inc. and changed its name to Vaxart, Inc. (“Private Vaxart”), in July 2007, and reincorporated in the state of Delaware. On February 13, 2018, Private Vaxart completed a reverse merger (the “Merger”), with Aviragen Therapeutics, Inc. (“Aviragen”), pursuant to which Private Vaxart survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Aviragen. Under the terms of the Merger, Aviragen changed its name to Vaxart, Inc. and Private Vaxart changed its name to Vaxart Biosciences, Inc.

 

Business Update Regarding COVID-19

 

The COVID-19 outbreak has presented a substantial public health and economic challenge around the world and is affecting employers, employees, patients, communities and business operations, as well as the U.S. economy and financial markets. The full extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak will directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19, the actions taken to contain it or treat its impact and the economic impact on local, regional, national and international markets.

 

To date, we have been able to continue our operations and do not anticipate any material interruptions in the foreseeable future. However, we are continuing to assess the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the development of other competing COVID-19 vaccines on our business and operations, including our expenses, supply chain and clinical trials. Our office-based employees have been mostly working from home since mid-March 2020 and will continue to do so until we believe it is safe to return to the workplace. Our partners have mostly continued to operate their facilities at or near normal levels. While we currently do not anticipate any interruptions in our operations, it is possible that the COVID-19 pandemic and response efforts may have an impact in the future on our operations and/or the operations of our third-party suppliers and partners. Any recovery from negative impacts to our business and related economic impact due to the COVID-19 outbreak may also be slowed or reversed by a number of factors, including the recent emergence of coronavirus strains with mutated S proteins.

 

 

Our Product Pipeline

 

The following table outlines the status of our oral vaccine development programs:

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/2112a2c131618b3579d051e086946d24-pipelinefy21.jpg

 

We are developing the following tablet vaccine candidates, which are based on our proprietary platform:

 

 

Coronavirus Vaccine. COVID-19, a severe respiratory tract infection caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, is a major cause of hospitalization and death in the U.S. and worldwide. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the “CDC”), an outbreak of COVID-19 began in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide. By May 8, 2022, more than 517 million COVID-19 cases had been identified globally, including in the United States, where the CDC had reported over 81 million infections and 995,000 deaths. While most COVID-19 restrictions, such as stay-at-home orders, have been lifted, COVID-19 continues to spread, particularly among the unvaccinated population, and remains a public health threat, not least due to the continuing emergence of new variants. The COVID-19 risk remains even greater in developing regions where vaccination rates still remain low.

 

We are developing an oral tablet vaccine to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus that causes COVID-19. We generated multiple vaccine candidates based on the published genome of SARS-CoV-2 and evaluated them in preclinical models for their ability to generate both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Of particular interest will be the mucosal immune responses, as coronavirus is primarily an infection of the respiratory tract. We believe the logistical advantages of an oral vaccine that is administered using a convenient room temperature-stable tablet could be of critical benefit when rolling out a major public health vaccination campaign. Given the recent emergence of coronavirus strains with mutated S proteins that are considered more contagious than the original strain, serum antibodies from injected vaccines may not adequately protect against these SARS-CoV-2 variants over time, whereas a vaccine that is able to create cross-reactive mucosal antibodies and T cells against conserved epitopes may have significant advantages.

 

On September 14, 2020, we announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) had cleared our Investigational New Drug (“IND”) application to allow initiation of human clinical testing of our first oral COVID-19 (S and N proteins) vaccine candidate VXA-CoV2-1. On October 13, 2020, we announced that Phase 1 clinical testing had commenced and on February 3, 2021, we announced the preliminary results of the trial. The study achieved both its primary and secondary endpoints of safety and immunogenicity, respectively. We announced in February 2021 that we would evaluate vaccine candidates that contain just the Spike protein, and different variant-specific vaccines in research. After preclinical evaluations (including in non-human primate studies) showed that an improved antibody response could be achieved with a new vaccine candidate that expressed just the Spike protein, we decided to move this candidate forward for clinical evaluation. This new vaccine candidate, VXA-CoV2-1.1-S, was also able to elicit antibody responses against human coronavirus strain variants such as Beta (first identified in South Africa) and Delta (first identified in India) in animals. Further, this new vaccine candidate was tested in a vaccine breakthrough/transmission model led by Duke University and found to inhibit aerosol transmission to vaccine-naïve animals better than an injected S-protein-based vaccine candidate. These results were published in bioRxiv in October 2021.

 

A new IND was filed for this S-only vaccine candidate in June 2021 and was cleared by the FDA in July 2021. We initiated dosing with this candidate in a Phase 2a clinical study in October 2021, with approximately 896 participants planned for enrollment utilizing a two-part study design. The first part of the study (“Part 1”) is currently underway and planned enrollment is 48 participants aged 18 to 55 and 48 participants aged 56 to 75, in order to further evaluate safety and immunogenicity and to assess optimal dosage. Further, half the subjects in the trial will be prior vaccinated (have received two doses of an mRNA vaccine) to test the ability of the Vaxart COVID-19 vaccine candidate to boost immune responses and enhance variant-specific cross-reactivity, and half the subjects will be naïve to prior vaccinations. We expect data from this portion of the trial to be available in the third quarter of 2022. Upon dose selection from Part 1, the second part of the study is expected to enroll approximately 800 subjects aged 18 to 75 and be designed to test preliminary vaccine efficacy to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

 

Additionally, international Phase 1b and Phase 2 COVID-19 trials, including a placebo-controlled efficacy trial in India, are anticipated to begin this year, though there can be no assurance that these trials will occur.

 

 

Norovirus Vaccine. Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea, among people of all ages in the United States. Each year, on average, norovirus causes 19 to 21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis and contributes to 56,000 to 71,000 hospitalizations and 570 to 800 deaths, mostly among young children and older adults. Typical symptoms include dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea with abdominal cramps, and nausea. In a study by the CDC and Johns Hopkins University, published in 2016, the global economic impact of norovirus disease was estimated at $60 billion, $34 billion of which occurred in high income countries including the United States, Europe and Japan. An update by the lead authors estimated the burden in the U.S. alone to be $10.5 billion in 2018. Virtually all norovirus disease is caused by norovirus GI and GII genotypes, and we are developing a bivalent vaccine designed to protect against both. We anticipate that, if approved, the vaccine will be an annual, one-time administration ahead of the winter season when norovirus incidence is at its peak, similar to the influenza season.

 

 

In 2019, we completed the active phase of a Phase 1b clinical trial with our bivalent oral tablet vaccines for the GI.1 and GII.4 norovirus strains. Both the oral norovirus GI.1 and GII.4 vaccines were well tolerated with no serious adverse events reported. Most solicited and unsolicited adverse events were mild in severity, and there were no significant differences observed between the vaccine and placebo treatment groups.

 

Importantly, Vaxart’s bivalent vaccine (GI.1 and GII.4 co-administered) demonstrated robust immunogenicity, with an IgA ASC response rate of 78% for the GI.1 strain and 93% for the GII.4 strain for the bivalent cohort of the study, when compared to 86% and 90%, respectively, for the two monovalent cohorts of the study. These results indicate that co-administration of the two vaccines, the intended approach for proceeding into phase 2 and 3 trials, shows no cross-interference, or reduction from the response observed with individual (monovalent) vaccine delivery.

 

We resumed clinical development of our norovirus vaccine candidate in late 2020 by planning the conduct of three clinical trials. In early 2021 we initiated dosing a subset of subjects (second dose after more than one year) in the Phase 1b bivalent study. In results announced on July 29, 2021, we reported that we were able to successfully boost immune responses with the G1.1 norovirus tablets in prior vaccinated subjects. These responses include IgA antibody secreting cells, as well as IgG and IgA serum antibody responses. In mid-2021 we initiated conduct of a placebo-controlled, dose ranging study in elderly adult subjects aged 55 to 80 to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine in the older population. This study has completed enrollment and study assessments through the active portion of the trial (4 weeks post last dose); sample analysis is currently underway with database lock and topline results are expected in the second quarter of 2022. Lastly, we also conducted an open-label trial to evaluate the optimal timing of boost administration in young adults in which 3 cohorts of subjects received their second dose (boost) at varying timepoints between 1 and 3 months post initial vaccination. This study was performed as data from trials with adenovirus vaccines indicate that boost administration at a later timepoint (e.g., 12 weeks) may offer a more robust immune response. This study has completed enrollment and study visits through the active phase; sample analysis is currently underway with database lock and topline results are also expected in the second quarter of 2022.

 

Within 2022, we plan to initiate Phase 2 clinical trials with our norovirus vaccines. The first trial, which has recently been initiated, is a Phase 2 norovirus challenge study which will evaluate safety, immunogenicity and clinical efficacy of a norovirus GI.1 vaccine against placebo control post viral challenge. The second clinical trial to be initiated will be a Phase 2 multi-center, placebo-controlled dose confirmation trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of Vaxart’s bivalent norovirus vaccine in subjects aged 18 years and older. The data from these Phase 2 studies is expected to form the basis (safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy data) for an End of Phase 2 Meeting with the FDA to gain concurrence on the scope and design of the Phase 3 pivotal efficacy study in adults over 18 years of age.

 

 

Seasonal Influenza Vaccine. Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide and, according to the CDC, only 49% of eligible U.S. citizens were vaccinated in 2018/2019, with particularly low vaccination rates among adults between ages 18 and 49. We believe our oral tablet vaccine has the potential to improve the protective efficacy of currently available influenza vaccines and increase flu vaccination rates.

 

Influenza is one of the most common global infectious diseases, causing mild to life-threatening illness and even death. Approximately 350 million cases of seasonal influenza occur annually worldwide, of which three to five million cases are considered severe, causing 290,000 to 650,000 deaths per year. During the flu season of 2018/2019 there were 34,200 flu related deaths in the U.S. alone, according to the CDC. Very young children and the elderly are at the greatest risk. In the United States, between 5% and 20% of the population contracts influenza, 226,000 people are hospitalized with complications of influenza, and between 3,000 and 49,000 people die from influenza and its complications each year, with up to 90% of the influenza-related deaths occurring in adults older than 65. The total economic burden of seasonal influenza has been estimated to be $87.1 billion, including medical costs which average $10.4 billion annually, while lost earnings due to illness and loss of life amount to $16.3 billion annually.

 

We believe our tablet vaccine candidate may potentially address many of the limitations presented by injectable egg-based influenza vaccines for the following reasons: (i) our tablet vaccine candidates are designed to create broad and durable immune responses, which may provide more effective immunity and protect against additional strain variants; (ii) our vaccine is delivered as a room temperature-stable tablet, which we believe would provide a more convenient method of administration, enhancing patient acceptance and simplifying the distribution and administration process; (iii) we believe our tablet vaccine may be manufactured more rapidly than vaccines manufactured using egg-based methods by using recombinant methods; and (iv) using our tablet vaccine in lieu of egg-based vaccines would eliminate the risk of experiencing allergic reactions to egg protein.

 

In September 2018, we completed a $15.7 million contract with the U.S. Government through the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (“HHS BARDA”) under which a Phase 2 challenge study of our H1N1 flu vaccine candidate was conducted. Previously, we had announced that, in healthy volunteers immunized and then experimentally infected with H1 influenza, our H1 influenza oral tablet vaccine reduced clinical disease by 39% relative to placebo. Fluzone, the market-leading injectable quadrivalent influenza vaccine, reduced clinical disease by only 27%. Our tablet vaccine also showed a favorable safety profile, indistinguishable from placebo.

 

On October 4, 2018, we presented data from the study demonstrating that our vaccine elicited a significant expansion of mucosal homing receptor plasmablasts to approximately 60% of all activated B cells. We believe these mucosal plasmablasts are a key indicator of a protective mucosal immune response and a unique feature of our vaccines. This data also indicates that our vaccines provide protection by inducing mucosal immunity (the first line of defense against mucosal infections such as flu, norovirus and RSV), marking what could be a key advantage over injectable vaccines.

 

 

In addition to our conventional seasonal flu vaccine, we entered into a research collaboration agreement with Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. (“Janssen”) in July 2019 to evaluate our proprietary oral vaccine platform for the Janssen universal influenza vaccine program. Under the agreement, we produced a non-GMP oral vaccine candidate containing certain proprietary antigens from Janssen and tested the product in a preclinical challenge model. The preclinical study has been completed and we have submitted a report to Janssen.

 

 

RSV Vaccine. RSV is a major respiratory pathogen with a significant burden of disease in the very young and in the elderly.

 

Based on the positive results of our preclinical cotton rat study, we believe our proprietary oral vaccine platform has the potential to be the optimal vaccine delivery system for RSV, offering significant advantages over injectable vaccines.

 

 

HPV Therapeutic Vaccine. Our first therapeutic oral vaccine candidate targets HPV-16 and HPV-18, the two strains responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and precancerous cervical dysplasia.

 

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and in the United States with about 13,000 new cases diagnosed annually in the United States according to the National Cervical Cancer Coalition.

 

We have tested our HPV-16 vaccine candidate in two different HPV-16 solid tumor models in mice. The vaccine elicited T cell responses and promoted migration of the activated T cells into the tumors, leading to tumor cell killing. Mice that received our HPV-16 vaccine showed a significant reduction in volume of their established tumors.

 

In October 2018, we filed a pre-IND meeting request with the FDA for our first therapeutic vaccine targeting HPV-16 and HPV-18 and we subsequently submitted our pre-IND briefing package. We received feedback from the FDA in January 2019 to support submission of an IND application to support initiation of clinical testing. Vaxart plans to initiate its clinical program of an oral HPV tableted vaccine with a clinical trial in young adult women with HPV 16 or 18 associated Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) Grade 2/3 or 3, pending regulatory and IRB/EC approvals. The trial would evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and preliminary clinical efficacy with repeat dose vaccine administration against a placebo control group.

 

Antivirals

 

 

Through the Merger, we acquired two royalty earning products, Relenza and Inavir. We also acquired three Phase 2 clinical stage antiviral compounds, which we have discontinued independent clinical development of. However, for one of these, Vapendavir, we have entered into an exclusive worldwide license agreement with Altesa Biosciences, Inc. (“Altesa”) on July 6, 2021, permitting Altesa to develop and commercialize this capsid-binding broad spectrum antiviral.

 

 

Relenza and Inavir are antivirals for the treatment of influenza, marketed by GlaxoSmithKline, plc (“GSK”) and Daiichi Sankyo Company, Limited (“Daiichi Sankyo”), respectively. We have earned royalties on the net sales of Relenza and Inavir in Japan. The last patent for Relenza expired in July 2019 and the last patent for Inavir expires in December 2029. Sales of these antivirals vary significantly by quarter, because influenza virus activity displays strong seasonal cycles, and by year depending on the intensity and duration of the flu season and competition with other antivirals such as Tamiflu. Importantly, on February 23, 2018, Xofluza, a new drug that treats influenza developed by Shionogi, was approved in Japan. The drug has gained significant market share, substantially reducing sales of Inavir.

 

Financial Operations Overview

 

Revenue

 

Revenue from Customer Service Contracts

 

We earned revenue from a fixed price service contract, as amended, for a total of $617,000, which we completed in the first three months of 2021.

 

Royalty Revenue

 

We earn royalty revenue, net of amounts recognized as non-cash royalty revenue related to the sale of future royalties, based on a fixed percentage of net sales of Inavir, a treatment for influenza, from our licensee, Daiichi Sankyo, under a royalty agreement which will expire in December 2029.

 

Non-Cash Royalty Revenue Related to the Sale of Future Royalties

 

In April 2016, Aviragen sold certain royalty rights related to Inavir in the Japanese market for $20.0 million to HealthCare Royalty Partners III, L.P. (“HCRP”). We pay HCRP the first $3 million plus 15% of the next $1 million of royalties earned in annual periods ending on March 31. At the time of the Merger, the estimated future benefit to HCRP was remeasured at fair value and was estimated to be $15.9 million, which we account for as a liability and amortize using the effective interest method over the remaining estimated life of the arrangement. The estimated future benefit was remeasured as of December 31, 2021, when the fair value was estimated to be $11.5 million, resulting in a revaluation gain of $3.8 million. Even though we do not retain the related royalties under the transaction, as the amounts are remitted to HCRP, we will continue to record revenue related to these royalties until the amount of the associated liability and related interest is fully amortized.

 

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Research and development expenses represent costs incurred on conducting research, such as developing our tablet vaccine platform, and supporting preclinical and clinical development activities of our tablet vaccine candidates. We recognize all research and development costs as they are incurred. Research and development expenses consist primarily of the following:

 

 

employee-related expenses, which include salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation;

 

expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations (“CROs”), that conduct clinical trials on our behalf;

 

expenses incurred under agreements with contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), that manufacture product used in the clinical trials;

 

expenses incurred in procuring materials and for analytical and release testing services required to produce vaccine candidates used in clinical trials;

 

process development expenses incurred internally and externally to improve the efficiency and yield of the bulk vaccine and tablet manufacturing activities;

 

laboratory supplies and vendor expenses related to preclinical research activities;

 

consultant expenses for services supporting our clinical, regulatory and manufacturing activities; and

 

facilities, depreciation and allocated overhead expenses.

 

We do not allocate our internal expenses to specific programs. Our employees and other internal resources are not directly tied to any one research program and are typically deployed across multiple projects. Internal research and development expenses are presented as one total.


We incur significant external costs to manufacture our tablet vaccine candidates, and for CROs that conduct clinical trials on our behalf. We capture these expenses for each vaccine program. We do not allocate external costs incurred on preclinical research or process development to specific programs.


The following table shows our period-over-period research and development expenses, identifying external costs that were incurred in each of our vaccine programs and, separately, on preclinical research and process development (in thousands):

 

   

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

   

2021

 

External program costs:

               

COVID-19 program

  $ 1,530     $ 2,939  

Norovirus program

    2,199       454  

Preclinical research

    460       422  

Process development

    610       1,106  

Total external costs

    4,799       4,921  

Internal costs

    13,404       5,152  

Total research and development

  $ 18,203     $ 10,073  

 

We expect that research and development expenses will increase in 2022 and beyond as we advance our tablet vaccine candidates into and through clinical trials, pursue regulatory approval of our tablet vaccine candidates and prepare for a possible commercial launch, all of which will also require a significant investment in manufacturing and inventory related costs. To the extent that we enter into licensing, partnering or collaboration agreements, a significant portion of such costs may be borne by third parties.

 

The process of conducting clinical trials necessary to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time consuming. We may never succeed in achieving marketing approval for our tablet vaccine candidates. The probability of successful commercialization of our tablet vaccine candidates may be affected by numerous factors, including clinical data obtained in future trials, competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability. As a result, we are unable to determine the duration and completion costs of our research and development projects or when and to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of any of our tablet vaccine candidates.

 

General and Administrative Expense

 

General and administrative expenses consist of personnel costs, allocated expenses and expenses for outside professional services, including legal, audit, accounting, public relations, market research and other consulting services. Personnel costs consist of salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation. Allocated expenses consist of rent, depreciation and other facilities-related expenses.

 

 

Results of Operations

 

The following table presents selected items in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (in thousands, except percentages):

 

   

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

   

2021

   

% Change

 
                         

Revenue

  $ 85     $ 506       (83

)%

                         

Operating expenses

    24,861       16,017       55

%

                         

Operating loss

    (24,776 )     (15,511 )     60

%

                         

Net non-operating income (expense)

    (305 )     (458 )     (33

)%

                         

Loss before income taxes

    (25,081 )     (15,969 )     57

%

                         

Provision for income taxes

    20       38       (47

)%

                         

Net loss

  $ (25,101 )   $ (16,007 )     57

%

 

Total Revenue 

 

The following table summarizes our revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (in thousands, except percentages):

 

   

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

   

2021

   

% Change

 

Revenue from customer service contracts

  $     $ 13       (100

)%

Non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties

    85       493       (83

)%

Total revenue

  $ 85     $ 506       (83

)%

 

Revenue from Customer Service Contracts

 

We earned revenue from customer service contracts of $13,000 in the three months ended March 31, 2021. This revenue was recognized from a fixed price contract executed in July 2019, as amended, for a total of $617,000, which we have now completed.

 

Non-cash Royalty Revenue Related to Sale of Future Royalties

 
For the three months ended March 31, 2022, non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties was $ 85,000, compared to $ 493,000 in the three months ended March 31, 2021, the decrease being due to a reduction in sales of Inavir in Japan.  We do not recognize any royalty revenue from sales of Inavir until the first $3 million net of 5% withholding tax in years ending on March 31 has been recognized as non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties. We recognized no royalty revenue in the years ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, because net royalties were only $448,000 and $1.3 million, respectively. We believe royalties have been abnormally low for the last two years primarily because social distancing an mask wearing due to the COVID-19 pandemic have caused the number of influenza infections to decline. Due to the unpredictability of the impact of COVID-19 on future flu seasons we are unable to forecast the amount of royalty revenue, if any, and non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties that we will earn in the future.

 

 

Total Operating Expenses

 

The following table presents our operating expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 (in thousands, except percentages):

 

   

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

   

2021

   

% Change

 

Research and development

  $ 18,203     $ 10,073       81

%

General and administrative

    6,658       5,944       12

%

Total operating expenses

  $ 24,861     $ 16,017       55

%

 

Research and Development

 

For the three months ended March 31,2022, research and development expenses increased by $8.1 million, or 81%, compared to the three months ended March 31,2021. The increase is primarily due to increased personnel costs, including stock-based compensation, facilities allocation related to headcount increases, manufacturing and clinical expenses related to our COVID-19 and norovirus vaccine candidates and higher depreciation.

 

We expect that research and development expenses will be significantly higher in 2022 and beyond than in 2021 as we continue to increase our headcount and incur significant expenditures on manufacturing and clinical trials for our COVID-19 and norovirus vaccine candidates.

 

General and Administrative

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2022, general and administrative expenses increased by $714,000, or 12%, compared to the corresponding period in 2021. The principal reasons are increased personnel costs, including stock-based compensation, partially offset by a net reduction in professional costs.

 

Other Income (Expense)

 

The following table presents our non-operating income and expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively (in thousands, except percentages):

 

   

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

   

2021

   

% Change

 

Interest income

  $ 35     $ 9       289

%

Non-cash interest expense related to sale of future royalties

    (340 )     (466 )     (27

)%

Foreign exchange loss, net

          (1 )     (100

)%

Net non-operating income (expense)

  $ (305 )   $ (458 )     (33

)%

 

For the three months ended March 31, 2022, we recorded net non-operating expenses of $305,000, a 33% decrease from the $458,000 recorded in the three months ended March 31, 2021.

 

Interest income increased in the three months ended March 31, 2022, compared to the three months ended March 31, 2021, due to higher investment balances. Non-cash interest expense related to sale of future royalties, which relates to accounting for amounts that will become payable to HCRP for royalty revenue earned from Inavir as debt, decreased in the three months ended March 31, 2022, compared to the corresponding period in the prior year, as the outstanding balance due to HCRP was revalued as of December 31, 2021, resulting in a reduction of $3.8 million in the estimated liability.

 

Provision for Income Taxes

 

The following table presents our provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively (in thousands, except percentages):

 

   

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

   

2021

   

% Change

 

Foreign withholding tax on royalty revenue

  $ 4     $ 25       (84

)%

Foreign taxes payable on intercompany interest

    14       13       8

%

State income taxes

    2             N/A  

Provision for income taxes

  $ 20     $ 38       (47

)%

 

The provision for income taxes comprises $20,000 and $38,000 in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The tax charge relates primarily to interest on an intercompany loan from a foreign subsidiary and a 5% withholding tax on royalty revenue earned on sales of Inavir in Japan, which is potentially recoverable as a foreign tax credit but expensed because we record a 100% valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets.

 

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Our primary source of financing is from the sale and issuance of common stock and common stock warrants in public offerings, along with proceeds from the exercise of warrants. In the past, we have also obtained funds from the issuance of secured debt and preferred stock and from collaboration agreements. In September 2021 we entered into a Controlled Equity Offering Sales Agreement (the “September 2021 ATM”), under which we may offer and sell, from time to time through sales agents, shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100 million. As of March 31, 2022, we had received net proceeds of $1.0 million from the sale of common stock under the September 2021 ATM. We incur direct expenses and pay sales commissions of up to 3.0% of gross proceeds from the sale of shares under the September 2021 ATM.

 

As of March 31, 2022, we had approximately $157.0 million of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. Since then, we have received net proceeds of $2.8 million from the sale of common stock under the September 2021 ATM, with approximately $92 million in net proceeds still available to us.

 

We believe our existing funds are sufficient to fund us for at least one year from the date of issuance of this Quarterly Report. To continue operations thereafter, we expect that we will need to raise further capital, through the sale of additional securities or otherwise. Our operating needs include the planned costs to operate our business, including amounts required to fund working capital and capital expenditures. Our future capital requirements and the adequacy of our available funds will depend on many factors, most notably our ability to successfully commercialize our products and services.

 

We may fund a portion of our ongoing operations through partnering and collaboration agreements which, while reducing our risks and extending our cash runway, may also reduce our share of eventual revenues, if any, from our vaccine product candidates. We may be able to fund certain activities with assistance from government programs. The sale of additional equity would result in additional dilution to our stockholders. We may also fund our operations through debt financing, which would result in debt service obligations, and the instruments governing such debt could provide for operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on acceptable terms, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce, or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market vaccine candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves. Any of these actions could harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

 

Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including the following:

 

 

the timing and costs of our planned preclinical studies for our product candidates;

 

 

the timing and costs of our planned clinical trials of our product candidates;

 

 

our manufacturing capabilities, including the availability of contract manufacturing organizations to supply our product candidates at reasonable cost;

 

 

the number and characteristics of product candidates that we pursue;

 

 

the outcome, timing and costs of seeking regulatory approvals;

 

 

revenue received from commercial sales of our future products, which would be subject to receipt of regulatory approval;

 

 

the terms and timing of any future collaborations, licensing, consulting or other arrangements that we may enter into;

 

 

the amount and timing of any payments that may be required in connection with the licensing, filing, prosecution, maintenance, defense and enforcement of any patents or patent applications or other intellectual property rights; and

 

 

the extent to which we in-license or acquire other products and technologies.

 

 

Cash Flows

 

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 

   

Three Months Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

   

2021

 
                 

Net cash used in operating activities

  $ (25,113 )   $ (16,592 )

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

    3,732       (20,559 )

Net cash provided by financing activities

    1,040       67,592  
                 

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

  $ (20,341 )   $ 30,441  

 

Net Cash Used in Operating Activities

 

Vaxart experienced negative cash flow from operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, in the amounts of $25.1 million and $16.6 million, respectively. The cash used in operating activities in the three months ended March 31, 2022, was due to cash used to fund a net loss of $25.1 million and an increase in working capital of $4.6 million, partially offset by adjustments for net non-cash income related to depreciation and amortization, accretion of premium on investments, stock-based compensation, non-cash interest expense related to sale of future royalties and non-cash revenue related to sale of future royalties totaling $4.6 million. The cash used in operating activities in the three months ended March 31, 2021, was due to cash used to fund a net loss of $16.0 million and an increase in working capital of $3.0 million, partially offset by adjustments for net non-cash income related to depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, non-cash interest expense related to sale of future royalties and non-cash revenue related to sale of future royalties totaling $2.4 million.

 

Net Cash Provided by (Used in) Investing Activities

 

In the three months ended March 31, 2022, we received $5.1 million from maturities of marketable securities, net of purchases, and used $1.3 million to purchase property and equipment. We used $19.9 million to purchase marketable securities, net of maturities, and $615,000 to purchase property and equipment in the three months ended March 31, 2021.

 

Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities

 

In the three months ended March 31, 2022, we received $992,000 from the sale of common stock under the September 2021 ATM and $48,000 from the exercise of stock options. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, we received $65.7 million from the sale of common stock under the October 2020 ATM and $1.9 million from the exercise of common stock warrants and stock options.

 

Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments

 

We have the following contractual obligations and commercial commitments as of March 31, 2022 (in thousands):

 

Contractual Obligation

 

Total

   

< 1 Year

   

1 - 3 Years

   

3 - 5 Years

   

> 5 Years

 
                                         

Long Term Debt, HCRP

  $ 17,790     $ 836     $ 6,368     $ 5,068     $ 5,518  

Operating Leases

    32,831       4,041       8,479       9,634       10,677  

Purchase Obligations